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Early Childhood Profile

Health and NutritionEarly Care and EducationParenting and Economic Supports

State Choices to Promote Access

  • 17 states set the income eligibility limit for child care subsidies at or above 200% FPL. [2013]1
  • 3 states child care subsidy reimbursement rates met the recommended 75th percentile of the market rate for two consecutive years [2013]1
  • 26 states redetermine the eligibility for child care subsidies no more than once per year [FY 2012]2
  • 23 states supplement Early Head Start [2012]3
  • 41 states fund a pre-kindergarten program and/or supplement Head Start. [2012]4
  • 12 states require districts to offer full day kindergarten [2013]5

State Choices to Promote Quality

  • 7 states require one adult for every four 18-month-olds, and a maximum class size of eight in child care centers. [2013]6
  • 26 states allocate state or federal funds for a network of infant/toddler specialists that provide assistance to child care providers. [2013]7
  • 45 states have early learning standards or developmental guidelines for infants and toddlers. [2013]7
  • 22 states have an infant/toddler credential. [2013]7
  • 23 states require through regulation that infants and toddlers in child care centers be assigned a consistent primary caregiver. [FY 2013]8
  • 15 states require one adult for every 10 4-year-olds, and a maximum class size of 20 in child care centers. [2013]6
  • 38 states have implemented a statewide Quality Rating Improvement System (QRIS) [2013]9
  • 8 states require one teacher for every 18 students in kindergarten classrooms [2013]5
  • 46 states have adopted Common Core Standards [2013]10
  • 1 state has comprehensive, free-standing standards for social emotional learning at the K-12 level [2011]11
  

Data Notes and Sources

Last Updated: June 4, 2014

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  1. Schulman, Karen; Blank, Helen. 2013. Pivot Point: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2013. National Women's Law Center. http://www.nwlc.org (accessed April 2, 2014).
  2. Minton, Sarah; Durham, Christin; Huber, Erika; Giannarelli, Linda. 2013. The CCDF Policies Database Book of Tables: Key Cross-State Variations in CCDF Policies as of October 1, 2012. OPRE Report 2013-22. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.acf.hhs.gov (accessed April 7, 2014).
  3. Colvard, Jamie; Schmit, Stephanie, Zero to Three and CLASP. 2012. Expanding Access to Early Head Start: State Initiatives for Infants and Toddlers at Risk. http://www.clasp.org (accessed August 15, 2013).
  4. Barnett, W.S.; Carolan, M.E.; Fitzgerald, J.; Squires, J.H. 2012. The State of Preschool 2012. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org (accessed September 9, 2013).
  5. Education Commission of the States. 2013. Early Learning: Kindergarten Online Database. http://ecs.force.com (accessed April 7, 2014).
  6. National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies. 2013.We Can Do Better: Child Care Aware of America's Ranking of State Child Care Center Regulations and Oversight. http://www.naccrra.org (accessed August 14, 2013).
  7. Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah, CLASP. 2013. Better for Babies: A Study of State Infant and Toddler Child Care Policies. http://www.clasp.org (accessed April 2, 2014).
  8. National Association for Regulatory Administration. 2014.The 50-State Child Care Licensing Study, 2011-2013 Edition. http://www.naralicensing.org (accessed April 8, 2014).
  9. QRIS National Learning Network. 2013. Current Status of QRIS in the States map. http://qrisnetwork.org (accessed August 15, 2013).
  10. Achieve. 2013. Closing the Expectations Gap: 2013 Annual Report on the Alignment of State K-12 Policies and Practice with the Demands of College and Careers. http://www.achieve.org (accessed April 7, 2014).
  11. CASEL. 2011. SEL in Your State: State Scan http://casel.org (accessed August 15, 2013).