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Early Childhood Profile

Health and NutritionEarly Care and EducationParenting and Economic Supports

State Choices to Promote Access

  • 17 states set the income eligibility limit for child care subsidies at or above 200% FPL. [2013]1
  • 3 states child care subsidy reimbursement rates met the recommended 75th percentile of the market rate for two consecutive years [2013]1
  • 26 states redetermine the eligibility for child care subsidies no more than once per year [FY 2012]2
  • 23 states supplement Early Head Start [2012]3
  • 41 states fund a pre-kindergarten program and/or supplement Head Start. [2012]4
  • 12 states require districts to offer full day kindergarten [2013]5

State Choices to Promote Quality

  • 7 states require one adult for every four 18-month-olds, and a maximum class size of eight in child care centers. [2013]6
  • 26 states allocate state or federal funds for a network of infant/toddler specialists that provide assistance to child care providers. [2013]7
  • 45 states have early learning standards or developmental guidelines for infants and toddlers. [2013]7
  • 22 states have an infant/toddler credential. [2013]7
  • 23 states require through regulation that infants and toddlers in child care centers be assigned a consistent primary caregiver. [FY 2013]8
  • 15 states require one adult for every 10 4-year-olds, and a maximum class size of 20 in child care centers. [2013]6
  • 38 states have implemented a statewide Quality Rating Improvement System (QRIS) [2013]9
  • 8 states require one teacher for every 18 students in kindergarten classrooms [2013]5
  • 46 states have adopted Common Core Standards [2013]10
  • 1 state has comprehensive, free-standing standards for social emotional learning at the K-12 level [2011]11

Data Notes and Sources

Last Updated: June 4, 2014

Send us recent developments to update your state's profile.

  1. Schulman, Karen; Blank, Helen. 2013. Pivot Point: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2013. National Women's Law Center. (accessed April 2, 2014).
  2. Minton, Sarah; Durham, Christin; Huber, Erika; Giannarelli, Linda. 2013. The CCDF Policies Database Book of Tables: Key Cross-State Variations in CCDF Policies as of October 1, 2012. OPRE Report 2013-22. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (accessed April 7, 2014).
  3. Colvard, Jamie; Schmit, Stephanie, Zero to Three and CLASP. 2012. Expanding Access to Early Head Start: State Initiatives for Infants and Toddlers at Risk. (accessed August 15, 2013).
  4. Barnett, W.S.; Carolan, M.E.; Fitzgerald, J.; Squires, J.H. 2012. The State of Preschool 2012. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research. (accessed September 9, 2013).
  5. Education Commission of the States. 2013. Early Learning: Kindergarten Online Database. (accessed April 7, 2014).
  6. National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies. 2013.We Can Do Better: Child Care Aware of America's Ranking of State Child Care Center Regulations and Oversight. (accessed August 14, 2013).
  7. Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah, CLASP. 2013. Better for Babies: A Study of State Infant and Toddler Child Care Policies. (accessed April 2, 2014).
  8. National Association for Regulatory Administration. 2014.The 50-State Child Care Licensing Study, 2011-2013 Edition. (accessed April 8, 2014).
  9. QRIS National Learning Network. 2013. Current Status of QRIS in the States map. (accessed August 15, 2013).
  10. Achieve. 2013. Closing the Expectations Gap: 2013 Annual Report on the Alignment of State K-12 Policies and Practice with the Demands of College and Careers. (accessed April 7, 2014).
  11. CASEL. 2011. SEL in Your State: State Scan (accessed August 15, 2013).