State Choices to Promote Access
- Sets the income eligibility limit for child care subsidies at or above 200% FPL 1
A family of three qualifies for assistance at $40,180 or 199% FPL. This reflects an increase from 197% FPL in 2015.
- Child care subsidy reimbursement rate meets the recommended 75th percentile of the market rate 3
- Provides families with at least 12 months of continuous eligibility for child care subsidies [FY 2015]4
Eligibility redetermined every six months.
- Supplements Early Head Start 5
- Funds a pre-kindergarten program and/or supplements Head Start [FY 2015]6
$146,590,191 for pre-kindergarten and Head Start
- Requires districts to offer full day kindergarten 7
State Choices to Promote Quality
- Requires one adult for every four 18-month-olds, and a maximum class size of eight in child care centers 8
Child care regulations require one adult for every 5 children, and the maximum class size is 10.
- Allocates state or federal funds for a network of infant/toddler specialists that provide assistance to child care providers 9
- Has early learning standards or developmental guidelines for infants and toddlers 10
- Has an infant/toddler credential or certificate 11
- Requires that infants and toddlers in child care centers be assigned a consistent primary caregiver 12
- Requires one adult for every ten 4-year-olds, and a maximum class size of 20 in child care centers 8
Child care regulations require one adult for every 10 children, and the maximum class size is 20.
- Has implemented a statewide Quality Rating Improvement System (QRIS) 13
- Requires one teacher for every 18 students in kindergarten classrooms 14
Requires one teacher for every 22 students, 2:27 with and aide, 2:30 with an assistant teacher, or 3:30 with two aides.
- Has adopted Common Core Standards 15
NCCP believes that Common Core State Standards should be used in conjunction with guidelines for social emotional learning.
- Has comprehensive, free-standing standards for social emotional learning at the K-12 level 16
Pennsylvania has some standards for SEL, with developmental benchmarks, from birth to grade two.
Data Notes and Sources
Last Updated: May 13, 2015
Send us recent developments to update your state's profile.
- Schulman, K., & Blank, H. (2016). Red Light Green Light: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2016. National Women's Law Center. https://nwlc.org (accessed December 14, 2016). Parents at 150% FPL ineligible in the following states: AL, AR, GA, ID, IA, MD, and MT.
- U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. (2015). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Math and Reading Assessment. http://nces.ed.gov (accessed November 10, 2015).
- Schulman, Karen; Blank, Helen. 2014. Turning the Corner: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2014. National Women's Law Center. http://www.nwlc.org (accessed March 3, 2015).
- Stevens, K., Minton, S., Blatt, L., & Giannarelli, L. (2016). The CCDF Policies Database Book of Tables: Key Cross-State Variations in CCDF Policies as of October 1, 2015. OPRE Report 2016-94. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.acf.hhs.gov (accessed February 22, 2017).
- Colvard, Jamie; Schmit, Stephanie, Zero to Three and CLASP. (2012). Expanding Access to Early Head Start: State Initiatives for Infants and Toddlers at Risk. http://www.clasp.org (accessed August 15, 2013).
- Barnett, W. S., Friedman-Krauss, A. H., Gomez, R. E., Horowitz, M., Weisenfeld, G. G., & Squires, J. H. (2016). The State of Preschool 2015: State Preschool Yearbook. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org (accessed December 12, 2016).
- Parker, E., Diffey, L., & Atchison, B. (2016). Full-day kindergarten: A look across the states. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. http://www.ecs.org (accessed June 23, 2017).
- National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies. (2013). We Can Do Better: Child Care Aware of America's Ranking of State Child Care Center Regulations and Oversight. http://usa.childcareaware.org (accessed August 14, 2013).
- Schmit, S., Matthews, H., CLASP. (2013). Better for Babies: A Study of State Infant and Toddler Child Care Policies. http://www.clasp.org (accessed April 2, 2014).
- Administration for Children & Families, Office of Child Care. (2016). State/Territory Early Learning Guidelines. https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov (accessed February 3, 2017).
- Administration for Children & Families, National Center on Child Care Professional Development Systems and Workforce Initiatives (PDW Center). (2014). State/Territory Infant/Toddler Credential Overview, April 2014. https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov (accessed September 2, 2015)
- National Center on Child Care Quality Improvement & National Association for Regulatory Administration. (2015). Trends in child care center licensing regulations and policies for 2014. (Research Brief #1 ) (No. 314). Fairfax, VA: National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance. Https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov (accessed June 23, 2017).
- QRIS National Learning Network. (2017). Current Status of QRIS in the States map. http://qrisnetwork.org (accessed February 7, 2017).
- Education Commission of the States. (2013). Early Learning: Kindergarten Online Database. http://ecs.force.com (accessed April 7, 2014).
- Achieve. (2015). Closing the Expectations Gap: 2013 Annual Report on the Alignment of State K-12 Policies and Practice with the Demands of College and Careers. http://www.achieve.org (accessed March 24, 2015).
- The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2017). K-12 Learning Goals for SEL in all 50 States. http://www.casel.org(accessed June 23, 2017).