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Overview

State policies that promote health, education, and strong families can help the early development and school readiness of America's youngest citizens. This profile highlights Oregon's policy choices alongside other data related to the well-being of young children.

Young children (under age 6)1: 270,726

Young children by income, 2013

Source1

Young children by race/ethnicity, 2013

Source1

Exposure to multiple risk factors among
young children, 2013*

Source1

Health

States can support young children's development by making key policy choices in early health and development. This section of ITO highlights states' policy choices for supporting young children's wellbeing: 1) Access to and continuity of health care, including state Medicaid/CHIP eligibility levels and coverage of legal immigrant children; 2) Parents' access to health care, including for low-income pregnant women, and access to a medical home for young children; and 3) Preventive screening and assessment, including adherence to recommended schedules for well-child visits.

Early Care and Education

States make important decisions about the early care and education services they provide to young children and families. This section of ITO higlights states' key policy choices that affect children's development and parents' ability to work: 1) Access to childcare, including subsidy eligibility levels and reimbursement rates; and 2) States' investment in Head Start, Early Head Start, pre-kindergarten, child care centers' class size and student-teacher ratios and investment in infant/toddler specialist networks and credentials and Quality Rating Improvement Systems.

Parenting and Economic Supports

States make critical policy choices that help low-income parents effectively support young children's healthy development. This section of ITO spotlights states' policy choices related to important economic supports for low-income families with young children: 1) TANF requirements for parents of young children; and 2) Income support policies including tax relief, earned income and dependent care tax credits, as well as child support disregards.


Health

State Choices to Promote Access

Young children who lack health
insurance, 2013

Source1

Percent of eligible children who received at
least one EPSDT* screening, by age, FY 2013

Source2

Income eligibility limit for public health insurance (Medicaid/CHIP) at or above 200% of the federal poverty level (FPL). [2015]3

  • Children <1 year
    Set eligibility at 305% (CHIP)
  • Children ages 1-5 years
    Set eligibility at 305% (CHIP)
  • Children ages 6-18
    Set eligibility at 305% (CHIP)
  • Pregnant women
    Set eligibility at 190% (Medicaid)
  • Provide lawfully residing immigrant children with Medicaid/CHIP coverage without 5-year waiting period [2015]3
  • Provide lawfully residing pregnant immigrant women with Medicaid/CHIP coverage without 5-year waiting period [2015]3
  • Medicaid and/or CHIP coverage for lawfully residing children [2014]4
  • Medicaid and/or CHIP coverage for lawfully residing pregnant women [2014]4
  • Provide temporary coverage to pregnant women under Medicaid until eligibility can be formally determined. [2015]3
  • Provide temporary coverage to children under Medicaid or CHIP until eligibility can be formally determined. [2015]3
  • Include at-risk children in the definition of eligibility for IDEA Part C. [2014]5
  • Do not require redetermination of eligibility for Medicaid/CHIP more than once a year [2013]6
  • Has adopted Medicaid expansion as part of the Affordable Care Act [2014]7

State Choices to Promote Quality

EPSDT screening periodicity schedule meets recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics [FY 2013]2

  • 7 Screenings for children <1 year
    State requires 6 screens. 90% of eligible screens were completed in 2013.
  • 4 Screenings for children 1-2 years
    States requires 5 screens. 70% of eligible screens were completed in 2013.
  • 3 Screenings for children 3-5 years
    State requires 3 screens. 58% of eligible screens were completed in 2013.
  • 4 Screenings for children 6-9 years
    State requires 4 screens. 31% of eligible screens were completed in 2013.
  • Require newborn screening for the 31 metabolic deficiencies/disorders and core conditions [2014]8
    30 universally required by law or rule.

Early Care and Education

Monthly child care co-payment fees as a
percent of income for a family of three 
with one child in care, 2015

Source9

National Assessment of Educational
Progress (NAEP) fourth grade math and
reading scores, 2015

Source10

  • Set the income eligibility limit for child care subsidies at or above 200% FPL. [2015]9
    A family of three qualifies for assistance at $37,188, or 185% FPL. This reflects no change in the FPL percentage from 2014.
  • Child care subsidy reimbursement rate meets the recommended 75th percentile of the market rate [2014]11
  • Redetermine the eligibility for child care subsidies no more than once per year [FY 2013]12
    Recertification is generally required at six months. Recertification period is every 12 months if client has a companion SNAP case and is using the state's simplified reporting system.
  • State supplements Early Head Start [2012]13
  • Fund a pre-kindergarten program and/or supplement Head Start. [2013]14
    $61,000,000 for Head Start
  • Requires districts to offer full day kindergarten [2014]15
    Requires districts to offer half day kindergarten

State Choices to Promote Quality

  • Require one adult for every four 18-month-olds, and a maximum class size of eight in child care centers. [2013]16
    Child care regulations require one adult for every 4 children, and the maximum class size is 8.
  • Allocate state or federal funds for a network of infant/toddler specialists that provide assistance to child care providers. [2013]17
  • Have early learning standards or developmental guidelines for infants and toddlers. [2014]18
  • Have an infant/toddler credential. [2014]19
  • Require through regulation that infants and toddlers in child care centers be assigned a consistent primary caregiver. [FY 2013]20
  • Require one adult for every 10 4-year-olds, and a maximum class size of 20 in child care centers. [2013]16
    Child care regulations require one adult for every 10 children, and the maximum class size is 20.
  • Have implemented a statewide Quality Rating Improvement System (QRIS) [2015]21
  • Requires one teacher for every 18 students in Kindergarten classrooms [2013]22
    Not specified in statute.
  • State has adopted Common Core Standards [2015]23
    NCCP believes that Common Core State Standards should be used in conjunction with guidelines for social emotional learning.
  • State has comprehensive, free-standing standards for social emotional learning at the K-12 level State has comprehensive, free-standing standards for social emotional learning at the K-12 level [2015]24

Parenting and Economic Supports

State Choices to Promote Effective Parenting

Low-income young children with a
parent employed full-time, 2013

Source1

  • Provide option to extend Medicaid coverage for family planning to otherwise ineligible low-income women [2015]25
    Eligibility based on income up to 250% FPL, includes men and individuals younger than 19 years of age.
  • Exempt single parents on TANF from work requirements until the youngest child reaches age 1. [FY 2013]26
    Parent must return to work when child 6 months.
  • Reduce the TANF work requirement to 20 hours or less for single parents with children under age 6 [FY 2013]26
    Case-by-case basis.

State Choices to Promote Family Economic Security

Education levels of mothers with young
children, 2013

Source1

Maximum annual TANF benefit for a
family of 3, for year 2013

Source26

  • Established a state minimum wage that meets or exceeds $9.10/hr and is indexed to inflation [2014]27
    $9.10
  • Exempt single-parent families of three below the poverty level from personal income tax. [2013]28
  • Offer a refundable state Earned Income Tax Credit. [2014]29
  • Offer a refundable state dependent care tax credit. [2014]30
    A credit of 8%-40% of child care expenses, rounded to the nearest $50, based on federal and OR adjusted gross income.
  • Keep copayments for child care subsidies below 10% of family income for families of three at 150% FPL [2015]9
    Copayments set at 18% of income.
  • Offer exemptions and/or extensions of the TANF benefit time limit for women who are pregnant or caring for a child under age 6. [FY 2013]26
  • Has paid family leave for a minimum of 6 weeks with full or partial replacement of wages [2013]31

  

Data Notes and Sources

Last Updated: November 16, 2015

Send us recent developments to update your state's profile.

  1. National data were calculated from the 2011 American Community Survey, representing information from 2011. State data were calculated from the 2009-2011 American Community Survey, representing information from the years 2009 to 2011.
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. 2014. The Annual EPSDT Report (Form CMS-416). http://www.medicaid.gov (accessed March 24, 2015).
  3. Brooks, Tricia; Touschner, Joe; Joan; Artiga, Samantha; and Stephens, Jessica; Alexandra Gates. 2015. Modern Era Medicaid: Findings from a 50-State Survey of Eligibility, Enrollment, Renewal, and Cost-Sharing Policies in Medicaid and CHIP as of January 2015 . Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Http://files.kff.org (accessed August 13, 2015)
  4. Medicaid. 2014. Medicaid and CHIP Coverage of Lawfully Residing Children and Pregnant Women. http://medicaid.gov (accessed August 25, 2015).
  5. Ringwalt, S. (Comp.). 2015. Summary table of states' and territories' definitions of/criteria for IDEA Part C eligibility. http://www.nectac.org (accessed August 25, 2015)
  6. Heberlein, Martha; Brooks, Tricia; Alker, Joan; Artiga, Samantha; and Stephens, Jessica. 2012. Getting into Gear for 2014: Findings from a 50-State Survey of Eligibility, Enrollment, Renewal, and Cost-Sharing Policies in Medicaid and CHIP, 2012-2013. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com (accessed August 13, 2013)
  7. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. 2015. Status of state action on the medicaid expansion decision . http://kff.org (accessed March 24, 2015).
  8. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center. 2014. National Newborn Screening Status Report. http://genes-r-us.uthscsa.edu (accessed March 24, 2015).
  9. Schulman, Karen; Blank, Helen. 2015. Building Blocks State Child Care Assistance Policies 2015. National Women's Law Center. Http://www.nwlc.org (accessed November 11, 2015). Families not eligible at 150% FPL for the following states: AL, AR, GA, ID, IA, KY, MD, MI, MT, NE and NV.
  10. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. 2015. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 Math and Reading Assessment. http://nces.ed.gov (accessed November 10, 2015).
  11. Schulman, Karen; Blank, Helen. 2014. Turning the Corner: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2014. National Women's Law Center. http://www.nwlc.org (accessed March 3, 2015).
  12. Minton, Sarah; Durham, Christin; Giannarelli, Linda. 2013. The CCDF Policies Database Book of Tables: Key Cross-State Variations in CCDF Policies as of October 1, 2013. OPRE Report 2014-72. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.acf.hhs.gov (accessed March 16, 2015).
  13. Colvard, Jamie; Schmit, Stephanie, Zero to Three and CLASP. 2012. Expanding Access to Early Head Start: State Initiatives for Infants and Toddlers at Risk. http://www.clasp.org (accessed August 15, 2013).
  14. Barnett, W.S., Carolan, M.E., Squires, J.H., Clarke Brown, K. 2013.The state of preschool 2013: State preschool yearbook. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research.
  15. Education Commission of the States. 2014. Early Learning: Kindergarten Online Database. http://ecs.force.com (accessed March 3, 2015).
  16. National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies. 2013.We Can Do Better: Child Care Aware of America's Ranking of State Child Care Center Regulations and Oversight. http://www.naccrra.org (accessed August 14, 2013).
  17. Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah, CLASP. 2013. Better for Babies: A Study of State Infant and Toddler Child Care Policies. http://www.clasp.org (accessed April 2, 2014).
  18. Administration for Children & Families, Office of Child Care. 2014. State/Territory Early Learning Guidelines. https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov (accessed September 3, 2015)
  19. Administration for Children & Families, National Center on Child Care Professional Development Systems and Workforce Initiatives (PDW Center). 2014. State/Territory Infant/Toddler Credential Overview, April 2014. https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov (accessed September 2, 2015)
  20. National Association for Regulatory Administration. 2014.The 50-State Child Care Licensing Study, 2011-2013 Edition. http://www.naralicensing.org (accessed April 8, 2014).
  21. QRIS National Learning Network. 2015. Current Status of QRIS in the States map. http://www.qrisnetwork.org (accessed March 16, 2015).
  22. Education Commission of the States. 2013. Early Learning: Kindergarten Online Database. http://ecs.force.com (accessed April 7, 2014).
  23. Achieve. 2015. Closing the Expectations Gap: 2013 Annual Report on the Alignment of State K-12 Policies and Practice with the Demands of College and Careers. http://www.achieve.org (accessed March 24 2015).
  24. CASEL. 2015. SEL in Your State: State Scan http://www.casel.org (accessed March 16, 2015).
  25. Guttmacher Institute. 2015. State Policies in Brief: Medicaid Family Planning Eligibility Expansions. New York, NY: Guttmacher Institute. Http://www.guttmacher.org (accessed March 24, 2015).
  26. Huber, Erika; Kassabian, David; Cohen, Elissa. 2014. Welfare Rules Databook: State TANF Policies as of July 2013. OPRE Report 2013-27. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hhttp://anfdata.urban.org (accessed March 24, 2015).
  27. The following states have passed laws to increase their minimum wage above $9.10 per hour in the coming years: California (in 2016), Connecticut (in 2015), Hawaii (in 2017), Maryland (in 2017), Massachusetts (in 2016), Michigan (in 2018), and Vermont (in 2015). National Conference of State Legislatures. 2014. State minimum wages: 2014 minimum wages by state. Washington, DC: NCSL. Http://www.ncsl.org (accessed August 28, 2014).
  28. National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP), 50-State Policy Tracker. 2013. 50-State Data, Income Tax Liability. http://nccp.org (accessed September 3, 2015)
  29. Tax Credits for Working Families. 2014. States with EITCs . Http://www.taxcreditsforworkingfamilies.org (accessed September 2, 2014).
  30. National Women's Law Center. 2014. 2014 Supplement to Making Care Less Taxing, Improving State Child and Dependent Care Tax Provisions. Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center. Http://www.nwlc.org (accessed March 24, 2015).
  31. National Conference of State Legislatures. 2013. State Family Medical Leave and Parental Leave Laws. Washington, DC: NCSL. http://www.ncsl.org (accessed April 10, 2014).